Pop-ups have long been the bane of web advertising, but many news outlets, blogs and retailers have been using them (with success) for getting email and social opt-ins, merchandising, cross-selling and upselling. They can convert incredibly well, or blow up site abandonment, depending on how they are designed and executed.
What not to do
The biggest mistake I see is pop-ups that deploy far too early. My first visit to a site, I need time to look around before I'm ready to join a Facebook page, download an e-book or sign up for a newsletter.
The above blog dropped this request upon my arrival. The box was quickly closed, but not before I could grab a screen shot (the visit inspired this post.)
How to use pop-ups effectively
First rule is don't tick off your visitor. Visitors get ticked off a lot less when the popup (or lightbox) doesn't interrupt a task, is relevant and includes a strong what's-in-it-for-me (value proposition).
An on-arrival pop-up is okay in the following situation: when it improves the user's site experience.
There are some cases when you need to get user input in order to continue using the site. This may be for business/personal segments (like for telecom, software, etc) or for geographic segments.
Websites that work with FiftyOne, for example, often announce that they offer international shipping with landed costs shown in cart (no surprise duty or taxes upon delivery). It's a significant value proposition, and the interruptive pop-up is a great way to communicate this value prop clearly.
In some cases, the pop-up window includes a pre-selected country and currency option that can be overriden.
It's not recommended to bombard a new visitor with a request for a social follow or share upon arrival, before he or she has had enough time to interact with your site and experience your brand. Even though not all "new visitors" are new to your brand - they may have cleared cookies or have searched your site out after using your product or visiting your shop - it's safer to ask for social opt-ins or email sign-ups is to ask on a returning visit, or in the case of a content site, after "x" number of page views (you determine the "x").
Ditto for feedback surveys. Ask users that have viewed at least 2 pages on your site, not upon arrival. The user has 3 seconds to determine if she wants to stay on your site - don't cover up your site's value proposition with a lightbox unless it's essential to guide your visitor to the right content (e.g. geographic content).
If you have a strong brand and detect a visitor has arrived by direct type in of your URL (indicating user is aware of your brand and is seeking you out), an email opt-in request, like OfficeMax', may be acceptable.
Ensure you split test it and measure both opt-in response and abandonment rate before sticking with it. And remember, use the direct type-in segment and/or returning visitor segments only.
Victoria's Secret has been using
pop-ups on cart pages for years. When a shopper clicks to view the cart, the upsell offer (usually tank tops) appears, and I've heard through the grapevine this converts well.
Groupon uses post-purchase pop-ups to ask for a social share and merchandise other deals to get a follow-up purchase.
There will always be customers who find this annoying. But these calls to action are launched at appropriate times. Their in-your-faceness may pay off in higher uptake (test, test, test).
Pop-up best practices
If you dare to display pop-ups, make sure they follow these rules:
1. Clearly communicate your value proposition(s).
Don't waste your user's time. If what you're showing in the pop-up isn't amazing, you risk sending your customer away from your site. If you're asking for an email address, state why they should bother. If you're asking for a social connection, show off some social proof (numbers and faces), and tell them why it's worth their while.
2. Optimize everything.
Test your headlines, images, offers and copy with your pop-ups. You may test a pop-up against no pop-up and find the no pop-up wins, but your test pop-up may have had an irrelevant or uncompelling offer.
3. Have a clear call to action
This goes without saying, but it never shocks me when marketers neglect this. (Hint: also make the label text explicit on what action the user is taking). Bonus points for including point-of-action assurances, like the KISSmetrics example above (anti-spam statement).
4. Make it easy to close
If you shroud the close icon, users have no choice but to abandon your site. Don't be tricky.
KISSmetrics' example hits all of these nails on the head. Kudos.
Finally, A/B testing is great to find out the what (quantitative results of using pop-ups), but user testing can tell you the why - what users hate about your design, offers and implementation.